Safe Identifiers in ReScript

Posted in Dev · 1 Jan, 2020

Pretty much each entity in our apps has special field that uniquely identifies it. Usually, it's called id. Type of such identifier can be int or string (or any other serializable data type). But when we deal with identifiers of these loose types, there are no guarantees that identifier of one entity is not confused with identifier of another entity or even some arbitrary int or string. In some cases, like handling of nested lists, it can cause nasty bugs that won't be caught by compiler. But this is fixable.

Consider todo entity of the following type:

rescript
type todo = {
id: int,
title: string,
}

As a first step to make its identifier safer, let's create TodoId module and move type of todo.id to this module:

rescript
module TodoId = {
type t = int
}
type todo = {
id: TodoId.t,
title: string,
}

With this change, we didn't gain any additional safety yet since compiler still resolves the type of identifier to int. Basically, we just aliased it in our code but nothing has changed for compiler. To gain extra safety, we must hide underlying type of TodoId.t from the rest of the app and make this type opaque.

rescript
module TodoId: {type t} = {
type t = int
}

Spot the difference: in this version we annotated TodoId module. And within this annotation, type t doesn't have any special type assigned, it is opaque to the rest of the app. Though inside the module it is still aliased to int, but only internals of TodoId module are aware of it.

How it affects a program flow:

rescript
// Before
let x = todo.id + 1 // Compiles
// After
let x = todo.id + 1 // Error: This expression has type TodoId.t but an expression was expected of type int

Now we have compile time guarantees that todo identifier can never be confused with any other identifier or arbitrary int.

As we will have to be dealing with conversion of raw value of identifier (from int or json or whatever) to the opaque type and back, TodoId module is going to contain such functions as make, toInt, toString, fromJson, toJson. Let's implement make function and restructure TodoId module a bit so we don't have to annotate all of its content.

rescript
module TodoId = {
module Id: {type t} = {
type t = int
}
type t = Id.t
external make: int => t = "%identity"
}

What we did here is hidden implementation of todo identifier in Id submodule and implemented make function which casts int to t using "%identity" external. Now, TodoId.make(1) would produce entity of TodoId.t type.

As a side note, make function doesn't have any runtime footprint and gets erased during compilation. It exists exclusively for compiler and you get compile-time safety with no runtime cost.


If you find using %identity too hacky for your taste, you can get away with another approach that doesn't involve external and has pretty much the same runtime cost (just a tiny bit of additional code in the output).

rescript
module TodoId = {
module Id: {
type t
let make: int => t
} = {
type t = int
let make = x => x
}
type t = Id.t
let make = Id.make
}

As you can see, we added make function to Id module which simply does nothing on the runtime level: it accepts argument and returns it back to a caller. The interesting part is in annotation: let make: int => t. Here we hint to compiler that this function takes int and returns t. Since t is int inside the Id module, it makes perfect sense to compiler. And since implementation of t is not exposed, make casts int to t on the type level for the rest of the app.

TodoId.make(1) still doesn't have any runtime footprint, but since we used let binding for make function, this function would be rendered in the output.

##

Making an implementation reusable

Usually, apps have a bunch of different identifiers, and repeating such implementation for each kind of id is tedious. But we can abstract away this logic into a functor.

Info
Functor is a function in a modules space. When you call a functor it returns a new module. More on functors in the official documentation.
Id.res
rescript
module Make = () => {
module Id: {type t} = {
type t = int
}
type t = Id.t
external make: int => t = "%identity"
external toInt: t => int = "%identity"
let toString = ...
let toJson = ...
let fromJson = ...
}

Then you can create *Id modules simply by calling a functor:

rescript
module TodoId = Id.Make()
module TodoListId = Id.Make()

CrossPost
Cross-posted to blog.minima.app
©Alex Fedoseev2015—2021